For over half a century, organic chemistry has been the mainstay of crop protection strategies for arable farming and food production. The control of fungal pathogens, insect pests and weeds has made a crucial contribution to food provision worldwide by ensuring the harvested yield of the world's crops. As we make progress in the new millennium, it is timely to take stock of the current situation and to look forward to future improvements that may be provided by new chemical technologies. There are three major aspects to be considered in this review. Firstly, we shall deal with advancements in the discovery process for new molecules for crop protection in which the chemistry is guided by experiments that indicate the properties which constitute premium products that contribute to agricultural sustainability.
The contribution of chemistry is not confined just to the discovery stage. It carries its purpose along the entire spectrum of clinical development. Each and every stage of clinical development involves surplus amounts of formulated drugs for studying potential benefits in human trials. All drugs are manufactured under strict Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) standards to ensure they meet the compliance requirements drafted by regulatory bodies. Drug developers leverage on the analytical chemical testing and process development for meeting the regulatory compliances. It is estimated that about 50% of the analytical chemistry services are outsourced. The current era is witnessing a growth of biologics such as vaccines, growth factors, monoclonal antibodies and biosimilars for the treatment of cancer, diabetes, asthma, rheumatic arthritis, etc.
Everybody is familiar with Shahrukh Khan featuring 'No VOC No Gadbad' ad of Nerolac paints educating the consumers about the side effects of VOC (volatile organic component) in paints. This is one of many such examples wherein consumer product manufacturers are redrawing their marketing plans with emphasise on the eco-friendly theme. FMCG companies are living no stone unturned in their quest to reduce carbon footprint in their supply chain. It is here that specialty chemicals play a big role. Be it fabrics that requires less water to wash, powered shampoo, or paints with low VOC, etc all require new processes and raw material (ie, specialty chemicals) which can be help these companies achieve their sustainability goals. Growing awareness about the environment has made consumers conscious about importance of eco-friendly products and they are ready to pay the premium.
The chemical makeup of the ice melt will affect how long the product continues to provide de-icing action after being applied. Ice melts with longer residual action will reduce the frequency in which ice melt will need to be applied in the future. Products which have longer residual action may be more expensive but will save costs on the amount of ice melt used and the labor needed to apply the ice melt.
In general, liquid ice melts typically provide longer residual action because they continue as brines for an increased amount of time when compared to solid ice melt. Another consideration when selecting the right ice melt is how the chemical compound will affect the surrounding areas of your facility.
In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure that occurs naturally in pure form. The geological definition of mineral normally excludes compounds that occur only in living beings. However some minerals are often biogenic (such as calcite) or are organic compounds in the sense of chemistry (such as mellite). Moreover, living beings often synthesize inorganic minerals (such as hydroxylapatite) that also occur in rocks. The concept of mineral is distinct from rock, which is any bulk solid geologic material that is relatively homogeneous at a large enough scale. A rock may consist of one type of mineral, or may be an aggregate of two or more different types of minerals, specially segregated into distinct phases.